Sublimation

WHAT TYPE OF SOLID SUBLIMES? We all know that ice melts before it evaporates. In sublimation, the liquid phased is omitted.

Dissociation

Dissociation is the breaking down of a compound into elements and the process is usually reversible.

The Process of Solvation

Solvation is simply the process of dissolving .

Osmotic Pressure

Jean Antoine Nollet In 1784, a French physicist and clergyman named Jean Antoine Nollet made an interesting discovery. He filled a pig’s bladder with a concentrated solution of alcohol. He then put the bladder in water and the bladder expanded! Read More …

Properties of Colloids

CLOUDY WATER IN A FISH TANK You may be surprised to know that the cloudy water syndrome in a fish tank is caused by colloids. Over a period of time, organic waste produced by the fish and algae in the Read More …

Brownian Motion

Come to the party, do the zig-zag motion Irregular motion of suspended particles is called “Brownian Motion”. Watch an interesting Youtube video on the discovery of Brownian Motion by British botanist Robert Brown Robert Brown was a Scottish botanist who Read More …

Atmospheric Pressure & Boiling Point

WHAT IS VAPOR PRESSURE? Water always evaporates no matter what the temperature or atmospheric pressure is. Even in the coldest of winter, snow and ice can evaporate by a process called sublimation. They can turn straight into vapor (the gaseous stage) Read More …

Molality – Definition

Molality is defined as the number of moles of solute per 1 (kg) of solvent. Solute = particles you dissolve Solvent = the liquid you use for dissolving the particles MOLALITY = MOLES OF SOLUTE / MASS OF SOLVENT (KG) EXAMPLE CALCULATION Read More …

Freezing Point Depression

Freezing point depression is simply the process of LOWERING the freezing point of a liquid by adding a solute to it. Adding non-volatile substance to volatile substance lowers the temperature for freezing point.

Boiling Point Elevation

Boiling Point Elevation The RAISING of the normal boiling point of a liquid by adding a non-volatile substance to it. When you add non-volatile solute to a pure solvent, the boiling point of the liquid solvent is elevated. This means that the Read More …

Vapor Pressure Lowering

VAPOR PRESSURE LOWERING Adding non-volatile solute to volatile solvent lowers the solvent’s vapor pressure. For example, water normally boils at 100 degrees C (212 F) but if you add something like salt to the solution, it decreases the vapor pressure of the solution. The water will only Read More …

Colligative Properties of Solutions

WHAT ARE COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS? The characteristics of a solution such as the boiling point, freezing point and vapor pressure are known as colligative properties Colligative properties apply only to solutions and not gas or solids. COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES ARE Read More …

Hydrophobic

Nonpolar Molecules have hydrophobic bonds Nonpolar molecules do not contain ions and don’t have dipole movement to form charges. Dipole movement means separation of charges like an atom becoming either positively or negatively charged during a bonding process. Nonpolar molecules Read More …

Nonpolar Covalent Bond

Nonpolar Covalent Bond is a chemical bond between two atoms that share electrons equally It is like a married couple with a joint bank account. NON-POLAR COVALENT BOND The electrons are shared at equal distance. The atoms are equally attracted Read More …

Polar Covalent Bond

The electrons are unequally distanced In a polar covalent bond, no electrons are gained or lost. The electrons position themselves closer to one atom and further away from the other. The atoms become partially charged When electrons move closer to an atom, Read More …

What is Ionic Bond

IONIC BONDS   Ionic bonding is the kind of attraction that causes the complete transfer of electron(s) between atoms. THE IONIC BOND LOVE STORY Ionic bond occurs between two very different types of elements such as a metal and non-metal. Read More …

Comparision of Bonds

A QUICK LOOK AT THE THREE DIFFERENT TYPES OF MOLECULAR BONDS HOW DO YOU FIND OUT THE TYPE OF BOND If you’re given two elements, such as carbon and oxygen, how do you tell what type of bond they will Read More …

Solubility

DEFINITION OF SOLUBILITY The solubility of a substance is the amount of that substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SOLUTE AND SOLVENT SOLUTE – the substance to be dissolved SOLVENT – the liquid for Read More …

Definition, Obits and Energy Level

Definition The valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost shell or last energy level of an atom. Valence electrons are electrons in the highest principal energy level. They are electrons that sit on the outermost orbit of an element. Read More …

Electronegativity

Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons.

Welcome to Surfguppy

Hello and welcome to Sufguppy. Surfguppy provides free online chemistry notes for high school and college students. If you’re a teacher or student, please feel free to use our materials for non-commercial purposes. A small portion of materials on this Read More …

Electronegativity Bond Scale

The above is an example of electronegativity bond scale.It shows the different types of chemical bonds formed between atoms based on the electronegativity difference. Bond scale varies slightly from text book to text book. For example, some text book show Read More …

The Mole relationship to Carbon

1 Mole = number of atoms in 12 g of carbon Experiments have determined that in 12g of carbon there are 6.022 x 10^23 number of atoms. In other words, 1 mole of carbon contains 6.022 x 10^23 atoms!

Carbon to Carbon Nonpolar Covalent Bond

Carbon and Carbon covalent bonds   Carbons are typically nice guys who like sharing their electrons with other atoms. They’re found in most places and social gatherings – cinemas, theaters, restaurants, parties, football matches, and any where nature is present. They enjoy Read More …

The Mole Concept

1 mole = 6.022 x 10^23 Avogadro’s Constant 1 mole = Molar Mass Molar Mass No. of moles = Mass / Molar Mass Moles Calculation 1 Mole = number of atoms in 12g of carbon Mole vs Carbon relationship Mole Read More …

Covalent Bond

What is COVALENT BOND? The term covalent bond is used to describe the bonds in compounds that result from the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons. In covalent bonds, the electrons are shared equally between two atoms. However, Read More …

What is Molecular Mass?

How to calculate molecular mass? Determine the molecular formula of the compound. Use the periodic table to determine the atomic mass of each element in the molecule. Multiply the atomic mass of each element by the number of molecules. Finally, Read More …

3 Simple Steps – the Ring Structure of Glucose Molecule

For drawing purposes, the ring structure of the glucose molecule is broken down into three simple steps as shown below. Each molecule of glucose sugar is only 1 unit consisting of 6 carbon atoms, 12 hydrogen atoms and 6 oxygen atoms in Read More …

Simple Sugars – Monosaccharides

What are Monosaccharides? Monosaccharides are known as simple sugars, they are the simplest form of carbohydrate. They are short chain molecules containing only one chemical ring. Since they are only one ring, they can be broken down to provide quick Read More …

Carbohydrates and Sugar

Organic Chemistry Carbohydrate chemistry is a branch of organic chemistry that studies carbon compounds. Carbon can be found in food and non-food substance. As carbon plays a huge role in living things, organic chemistry is very important to medicine and life Read More …

4 Simple Steps – Chain Glucose Molecule

Glucose C6H12O6 Stick diagram Post by Surfguppy. Glucose is a carbohydrate and it is one of the smallest units of sugar Its chemical formula is C6H12O6 Glucose are hexoses – 6 carbon sugars In total, there are 24 atoms that form the molecule Read More …

Open, Closed & Isolated Systems

Systems Systems refer to any parts of the universe being studied. If you are conducting an experiment in a beaker, then the system you are studying is in the beaker. The system is subject to surrounding factors such as air temperature Read More …

The Octet Rule of Electron Configuration

What is the Octet Rule of Electron Configuration? Electron configuration is the arrangement of electrons in each energy level or orbit of an atom. If the outer shell of an atom is not filled to its maximum level, the atom Read More …

Enthalpy Change Calculation

Example: Propane Combustion When (0.5g) of propane is burned, the heat produced is used to raise the temperature of (100cm3) of water from (20°C to 40°C), calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction. In this example, you are Read More …

Enthalpy, Entropy & Gibbs Free Energy

Enthalpy  Entropy Gibbs Free Energy       Enthalpy is the amount of heat energy transferred (heat absorbed or emitted) in a chemical process under constant pressure. Entropy measures the amount of heat dispersed or transferred during a chemical process. Gibbs Read More …

Enthalpy

WHAT IS ENTHALPY CHANGE? Don’t get hung up with the term enthalpy change. It is just a simple term to denote the amount of heat that passes in or out of a system during a chemical reaction under constant pressure. Read More …

Hess Law

WHAT IS HESS LAW? Hess law states that energy change in the overall chemical reaction is the sum of energy change or enthalpy change in the individual reactions that comprises it. Hess’ Law can be difficult to understand because of all the Read More …

Hess Law – Calculation for Methane formation

METHANE GAS – CH4 What is the enthalpy change when methane is formed using carbon graphite and hydrogen? When a chemical reaction takes place, heat is either given off or absorbed. If given off, it is called an exothermic reaction. Read More …

Gibb’s Free Energy – Ammonia

In the question above, you are asked to calculate Gibb’s Free Energy for the Haber Process. The Haber Process is a process of manufacturing ammonia in a factory. The raw materials are nitrogen and hydrogen. Nitrogen is obtained by burning Read More …

Understanding Gibbs Free Energy

What is Gibbs Free Energy? For a simple definition, Gibbs free energy can be described as A measure of the amount of energy available to do work. Gibbs free energy is used in chemistry to help determine and predict ahead Read More …

Reaction Spontaneity

(Picture above – Dog escaping over the fence – winter 2015) A spontaneous process is a physical or chemical change that occurs with no outside intervention. In life, many things happen spontaneously. For example, my dog escaped over the fence Read More …

Entropy

WHAT IS ENTROPY? Entropy refers to the amount of unusable energy in a system When water flows over a dam, it looses some of its useful energy. Solid wood burns to become ash. Ice melting. Converting the useful energy to Read More …

Carbon to Carbon – Single, Double & Triple Bonds

CARBON TO CARBON BONDING We know from the periodic table Carbon atoms have 4 valence electrons on the outer shells. According to the Octet Rule of Electron Configuration, this means the four are free to wonder and find opportunity to Read More …

Condensation Polymerization

Condensation polymers are any kind of polymers formed through a condensation reaction where molecules join together–losing small molecules as by-products such as water or methanol.

In addition polymerization, all the original atoms present in the monomers are retained in the polymer product.

Types of Plastics and their Classification

Plastic classifications is a system established to allow consumers to properly recycle and dispose of different types of plastics. Manufactures follow a coding system and place an SPI code on each plastic product, and are usually printed or modeled into the bottom.

What is Polymerization

Polymerization is simply the process of putting together monomers (single molecules), to become a long chain of molecules (called polymers) with the use of a catalyst.

How to calculate the number of moles

Knowing the number of moles allows you to calculate the number of atoms if you are dealing with chemical compounds. Moles are very useful, they allow chemists to use chemical equations to determine the mass of reactants and products. Read about Read More …

Molar Mass

Molar mass is the weight of one mole of any chemical compounds. How do you calculate molar mass of element (hydrogen)? Molar mass for an element is simply the atomic mass of the element Molar mass of hydrogen = atomic Read More …