Systems refer to any parts of the universe being studied.
If you are conducting an experiment in a beaker, then the system you are studying is in the beaker.
The system is subject to surrounding factors such as air temperature and pressure.
Thermodynamics involve the study of heat energy exchange between a system and its surroundings.
Types of Thermodynamic Systems
You may have heard of open systems and closed systems. An open system is one that freely allows energy and matter to be transferred in an out of a system.
For example, boiling water without a lid.
Heat escaping into the air.
Steam (which is matter) escaping into the air.
A closed system, on the other hand, does not allow the exchange of matter but allows energy to be transferred.
It allows heat to be transferred from the stove to the water
Heat is also transferred to the surroundings
Steam is not allowed to escape
Example of a closed system – a pressure cooker.
Nb: If a system is 100% closed, it is in danger of exploding. That's why pressure cooker should be designed with safety mechanisms to prevent the system from over-pressurzing by allowing steam to escape when needed.
This system is completely sealed
Matter is not allowed to be exchanged with the surroundings
Heat cannot transfer to the surroundings
Example – A thermoflask is an isolated system
Find the isolated systems below: