## What is Polymerization?

Polymerization is simply the process of putting together monomers (single molecules), to become a long chain of molecules (called polymers) with the use of a catalyst.

## How to calculate the number of moles

Question: How many moles are in 1000 g of sucrose? 1. Obtain the atomic mass First, write down the formula for sucrose: C12H22O11 2. Calculate the molar mass of sucrose To calculate the molar mass of a substance, you must Read More …

## Molar Mass

Molar mass is the weight in grams of one mole of a chemical substance. How to calculate the molar mass of a single element (eg.hydrogen)? The molar mass for an element is the sum of atomic masses, expressed as g/mol. Read More …

If moles have bank accounts, each would have:
6.02 × 10^23 amount of \$\$\$dollars. LOL!

## Sublimation

WHAT TYPE OF SOLID SUBLIMES? We all know that ice melts before it evaporates. In sublimation, the liquid phased is omitted.

## Dissociation

Dissociation is the breaking down of a compound into elements and the process is usually reversible.

## Osmosis

In 1784, a French physicist and clergyman named Jean Antoine Nollet made an interesting discovery. He filled a pig’s bladder with a concentrated solution of alcohol. He then put the bladder in water and the bladder expanded! This interesting process Read More …

## Properties of Colloids

Do you know that the cloudy water syndrome in a fish tank is caused by colloids? Over a period of time, organic waste produced by the fish and algae in the tank are turned into nitrates. These particles are interspersed Read More …

## Brownian Motion

Irregular motion of suspended particles is called “Brownian motion”. Watch an interesting Youtube video on the discovery of Brownian Motion by British botanist Robert Brown Robert Brown was a Scottish botanist who first discovered the Brownian motion. He noticed random Read More …

## Atmospheric Pressure & Boiling Point

Water always evaporates no matter what the temperature or atmospheric pressure is. Even in the coldest of winter, snow and ice can evaporate by a process called sublimation. They can turn straight into vapor (the gaseous stage) without melting. The Read More …

## Molality

Molality is defined as the number of moles of solute per 1 (kg) of solvent. Solute = particles you dissolve Solvent = the liquid you use for dissolving the particles Example Calculate molality (m) of 29.8 g of glucose (C6H12O6) dissolved in Read More …

## Freezing Point Depression

Freezing point depression is simply the process of LOWERING the freezing point of a liquid by adding a solute to it. Adding non-volatile substance to volatile substance lowers the temperature for freezing point.

## Boiling Point Elevation

Boiling point elevation is the elevation of a solid’s normal boiling point by adding a substance to it. When you add a solute (such as salt or sugar) to a pure solvent (such as water), the boiling point of the Read More …

## Vapor Pressure Lowering

Adding a solute to a pure solvent lowers the solvent’s vapor pressure. For example, water normally boils at 100ºC (212ºF) but if you add a substance like salt to the solution, it decreases the vapor pressure of the solution. First, recall Read More …

## Colligative Properties of Solutions

The characteristics of a solution such as the boiling point, freezing point and vapor pressure are known as colligative properties. Colligative properties apply only to solutions and not gases or solids. COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES ARE DEPENDENT ON THE NUMBER OF ATOMS Read More …

## Hydrophobic

Nonpolar molecules do not dissolve readily in water Nonpolar molecules do not become hydrated – they are repelled by water The molecules are insoluble or almost insoluble in water Oils and fats are examples of hydrophobic substances. For example, if you mix Read More …

## Nonpolar Covalent Bond

A nonpolar covalent bond is a chemical bond where electrons are shared equally between two atoms The electrons are shared equally between the two atoms Nonpolar covalent bond electronegativity scale If the difference in electronegativity between two atoms is 0.4 Read More …

## Polar Covalent Bond

The electrons are unequally shared between two atoms When a chemical bond involves “the sharing of a pair of electrons by two atoms in a molecule”, it is generally called a covalent bond.   In a polar covalent bond, the Read More …

## What is an ionic bond?

An ionic bond An ionic bond is formed between elements of large differences in electronegativities, which are typically found between metals and non-metals. The atom that loses the electron(s) becomes a positively charged ion called a cation, and the one Read More …

## Comparision of Bonds

A QUICK LOOK AT THE THREE DIFFERENT TYPES OF MOLECULAR BONDS HOW DO YOU FIND OUT THE TYPE OF BOND If you’re given two elements, such as carbon and oxygen, how do you tell what type of bond they will Read More …

## Solubility

The solubility of a substance is the amount of that substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent. The difference between solute and solvent SOLUTE – the substance to be dissolved SOLVENT – the liquid for dissolving the Read More …

## Definition, Obits and Energy Level

Definition The valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost shell or last energy level of an atom. valence electrons are electrons in the last shell of an atom Valence electrons are electrons in the highest principal energy level. They Read More …

## Electronegativity

Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons.

## Welcome to Surfguppy

Hello and welcome to Sufguppy. Surfguppy provides free online chemistry notes for high school and college students. If you’re a teacher or student, please feel free to use our materials for non-commercial purposes. A small portion of materials on this Read More …