Sublimation

WHAT TYPE OF SOLID SUBLIMES? We all know that ice melts before it evaporates. In sublimation, the liquid phased is omitted.

Dissociation

Dissociation is the breaking down of a compound into elements and the process is usually reversible.

The Process of Solvation

Solvation is simply the process of dissolving .

Osmotic Pressure

Jean Antoine Nollet In 1784, a French physicist and clergyman named Jean Antoine Nollet made an interesting discovery. He filled a pig’s bladder with a concentrated solution of alcohol. He then put the bladder in water and the bladder expanded! Read More …

Properties of Colloids

CLOUDY WATER IN A FISH TANK You may be surprised to know that the cloudy water syndrome in a fish tank is caused by colloids. Over a period of time, organic waste produced by the fish and algae in the Read More …

Brownian Motion

Come to the party, do the zig-zag motion Irregular motion of suspended particles is called “Brownian Motion”. Watch an interesting Youtube video on the discovery of Brownian Motion by British botanist Robert Brown Robert Brown was a Scottish botanist who Read More …

Atmospheric Pressure & Boiling Point

WHAT IS VAPOR PRESSURE? Water always evaporates no matter what the temperature or atmospheric pressure is. Even in the coldest of winter, snow and ice can evaporate by a process called sublimation. They can turn straight into vapor (the gaseous stage) Read More …

Molality – Definition

Molality is defined as the number of moles of solute per 1 (kg) of solvent. Solute = particles you dissolve Solvent = the liquid you use for dissolving the particles MOLALITY = MOLES OF SOLUTE / MASS OF SOLVENT (KG) EXAMPLE CALCULATION Read More …

Freezing Point Depression

Freezing point depression is simply the process of LOWERING the freezing point of a liquid by adding a solute to it. Adding non-volatile substance to volatile substance lowers the temperature for freezing point.

Boiling Point Elevation

Boiling Point Elevation The RAISING of the normal boiling point of a liquid by adding a non-volatile substance to it. When you add non-volatile solute to a pure solvent, the boiling point of the liquid solvent is elevated. This means that the Read More …

Vapor Pressure Lowering

VAPOR PRESSURE LOWERING Adding non-volatile solute to volatile solvent lowers the solvent’s vapor pressure. For example, water normally boils at 100 degrees C (212 F) but if you add something like salt to the solution, it decreases the vapor pressure of the solution. The water will only Read More …

Colligative Properties of Solutions

WHAT ARE COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES OF SOLUTIONS? The characteristics of a solution such as the boiling point, freezing point and vapor pressure are known as colligative properties Colligative properties apply only to solutions and not gas or solids. COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES ARE Read More …

Hydrophobic

Nonpolar Molecules have hydrophobic bonds Nonpolar molecules do not contain ions and don’t have dipole movement to form charges. Dipole movement means separation of charges like an atom becoming either positively or negatively charged during a bonding process. Nonpolar molecules Read More …

Nonpolar Covalent Bond

Nonpolar Covalent Bond is a chemical bond between two atoms that share electrons equally It is like a married couple with a joint bank account. NON-POLAR COVALENT BOND The electrons are shared at equal distance. The atoms are equally attracted Read More …

Polar Covalent Bond

The electrons are unequally distanced In a polar covalent bond, no electrons are gained or lost. The electrons position themselves closer to one atom and further away from the other. The atoms become partially charged When electrons move closer to an atom, Read More …

What is Ionic Bond

IONIC BONDS   Ionic bonding is the kind of attraction that causes the complete transfer of electron(s) between atoms. THE IONIC BOND LOVE STORY Ionic bond occurs between two very different types of elements such as a metal and non-metal. Read More …

Comparision of Bonds

A QUICK LOOK AT THE THREE DIFFERENT TYPES OF MOLECULAR BONDS HOW DO YOU FIND OUT THE TYPE OF BOND If you’re given two elements, such as carbon and oxygen, how do you tell what type of bond they will Read More …

Solubility

DEFINITION OF SOLUBILITY The solubility of a substance is the amount of that substance that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent. DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SOLUTE AND SOLVENT SOLUTE – the substance to be dissolved SOLVENT – the liquid for Read More …

Definition, Obits and Energy Level

Definition The valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost shell or last energy level of an atom. Valence electrons are electrons in the highest principal energy level. They are electrons that sit on the outermost orbit of an element. Read More …

Electronegativity

Electronegativity is a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract a bonding pair of electrons.

Welcome to Surfguppy

Hello and welcome to Sufguppy. Surfguppy provides free online chemistry notes for high school and college students. If you’re a teacher or student, please feel free to use our materials for non-commercial purposes. A small portion of materials on this Read More …