What is Ionic Bond

ionic bond chemistry cartoon

IONIC BONDS

 

Ionic bonding is the kind of attraction that causes the complete transfer of electron(s) between atoms.

THE IONIC BOND LOVE STORY

Ionic bond occurs between two very different types of elements such as a metal and non-metal. Their electronegativity values are far apart, one is really strong and the other is weak. So they bond by transferring electrons.

  • When the two atoms combine, they actually transfer electrons rather than share them. As a result, they change personality.
  • The atom that looses the electron(s) becomes a positively charged ion called cation and the one that gains the electron(s) is called the anion.

Helpful tips to remember:

Cathy the cation (+’ve)
Andy the anion (-‘ve)

ionic bond charges - cation and anion
Ionic bond: one atom gives up electrons to form a positively charged ion (cation). The other atom gains electrons to form negatively charged ion (anion).

 

ELECTRONEGATIVITY BOND SCALE

FOR IONIC BOND THE ELECTRONEGATIVITY DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TWO ATOMS IS GREATER THAN 1.7.

What is electronegativity? Electronegativity is the ability to attract electrons.

Electronegativity scale
Electronegativity scale

More about ionic bond scale

EXAMPLE OF AN IONIC BOND
SODIUM TO CHLORINE
ionic bonds

Love is ironic – that you are willing to give up all your electrons…

 

The electronegativity in chlorine is so strong compared to sodium that it SNATCHES an electron rather than share it. An electron TRANSFERS over from the sodium to the chlorine.

  1. Sodium has an electronegativity of 0.93
  2. Chlorine has an electronegativity of 3.16
  3. Electronegative difference between Sodium and Chlorine = 3.16 – 0.93 = 2.23
  4. The difference is greater than 1.7 so the sodium chloride molecule bond is considered an ionic bond
Illustration of sodium and chlorine ionic bonding
Illustration of sodium and chlorine ionic bonding

Chlorine Atom (anion)

  • There are 17 valence electrons in Chlorine
  • It is easier to gain 1 electron than to loose 7
  • Chlorine steals 1 electron from Sodium
  • Chlorine now has 18 electrons and 17 protons
  • Chorine has gained a charge of 1-

Sodium Atom (cation)

  • There is only 1 valence electron in Sodium
  • It is easier to loose 1 electron than to gain 7
  • Sodium transfers an electron to chlorine
  • Sodium now has 10 electrons and 11 protons
  • Sodium has gained a charge of 1+

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.